Anatomical dead space

Anatomical dead space definition of anatomical dead space

define anatomical dead space. the volume of the conducting airways in which no gas exchange takes place. that part of the inspired volume which is expired unchanged at the beginning of expiration, or. the volume of gas exhaled before CO2 reaches the alveolar plateau - according to Fowler (1948) Examiner explanation: The anatomical dead space is that space of the brachial tree that does not take place in gaseous exchange. In other words it is a space, which includes air traveling down the trachea bronchi and bronchioles but no to the alveoli. The anatomical dead space can increase with a large inspiration due to.. Anatomical dead space ventilation was lower in the controls at submaximal work load (4.17 (1.56) v 5.58 (1.93) l/min; P < 0.001). At peak exercise anatomical dead space ventilation was the same in both groups, but was lower expressed as a percentage of total VE in the control group (9.8 (3.3) v 13.5 (4.0); P < 0.001)

Dead space (physiology) - Wikipedi

alveolar dead space the difference between anatomical dead space and physiologic dead space, representing the space in alveoli occupied by air that does not participate in oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange (alveolar ventilation). It varies in different parts of the lungs and under different conditions Nitrogen washout (or Fowler's method) is a test for measuring anatomic dead space in the lung during a respiratory cycle, as well as some parameters related to the closure of airways In our study, we believe that neither alterations in respiratory physiology nor the minimal changes in anatomical dead space appear to contribute to expedited liberation from mechanical ventilation PHYSIOLOGICAL DEAD SPACE = ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE + ALVEOLAR DEAD SPACE. Dead space is defined as inspired air that is not perfused by blood and thus waisted because it does not contribute to gas exchange. ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE: The volume of air occupying the upper airways where there are no alveoli

Dead space is the portion of the respiratory system where tidal volume doesn't participate in gas exchange. There are three types of dead space: anatomic, physiologic, and the dead space belonging to any airway equipment being used to assist ventilation. Types of Dead Space Anatomic and physiologic dead space Dead space refers to the volume of air that enters the airways and lungs, but does not participate in gas exchange. In order to fill the alveoli to capacity, air must incidentally occupy spaces of the bronchioles, bronchi, and trachea, but these structures do not exhibit the thin epithelial-capillary. Anatomical dead space and functional residual capacity (FRC) play a very important role to ensure the constancy of alveolar gas tensions. Firstly it is important to understand what the anatomical dead space and FRC actually are Anatomic dead space is usually considered to be the physical volume of the airways but static measurements of airway volume do not take into consideration the dynamic aspects of respiration. The most commonly used method for measuring anatomic dead space in a research setting is the single-breath technique developed by Fowler in 1948

Enghoff, is the sum of anatomic or airway dead space (V D-anat) and alveolar dead space (V D-alv) divided by the V T. The definition of pure dead space is ventilation with-out perfusion, whereby alveolar gases do not contact blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries. All conducting airways (anatomical and mechanical dead space), areas o Dr. Mobeen presents dead spaces and respiratory zones (physiological) in 3 minutes. An excerpt from the pulmonology videos. Dead Space : Understading the Physiology Behind it - Duration: 8:11. Understanding anatomic dead space is important to recognizing subtle hypoventilation. Hypoventilation from sedation, pain medications, anesthesia in the immediate postoperative period is common. The most obvious sign is slowing of the rate of breathing. A more subtle sign is that tidal volume becomes shallower Anatomic Dead Space Cannot Be Predicted by Body Weight Lara M Brewer MSc, Joseph A Orr PhD, and Nathan L Pace MD BACKGROUND: Anatomic dead space (also called airway or tracheal dead space) is the part of th Synonyms for anatomical dead space in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for anatomical dead space. 70 synonyms for space: room, volume, capacity, extent, margin, extension.

These videos are designed for medical students studying for the USMLE step 1. Feel free to comment and suggest what you would like to see in the future, and I will do my best to fulfill those. Anatomical Dead Space Some of the inspired air fills the conducting respiratory passageways and never contributes to gas exchange in the alveoli, typically amounts to about 150 ml (The rule of thumb is that the anatomical dead space volume in a healthy young adult is equal to 1 ml per pound of ideal body weight. Anatomical dead space and its Anesthetic implications. Total dead space (Physiological dead space) = Anatomical dead space + Alveolar dead space. Anatomical Dead Space It is constituted by air which is not participating in diffusion. Therefore it is constituted by air present in nose, trachea and bronchial tree (up to terminal bronchioles). Normally it is 30% of tidal volume or 2 ml/kg or 150 ml Nasal high flow clears anatomical dead space in upper airway models. The second was a more complex anatomically representative upper airway model, constructed from segmented CT-scan images of a healthy volunteer. After filling the models with tracer gases, NHF was delivered at rates of 15, 30, and 45 l/min

Video: Anatomical Dead Space Medical Definition - Merriam-Webste

Dead Space Washout The washout of expired CO 2 from anatomical dead space is thought to be one of the primary mechanisms contributing to the success of HFNC therapy.5,12,14 The reduction in frac-tion of inspired CO 2 allows for a larger amount of FiO 2 to participate in gas exchange and lower minute ventila-tion needs. This may result in a de Dead space. Essentially all exchange of gas between air and blood only takes place at the alveolar surface. The system of tubes connecting this surface to the atmosphere takes little part in this exchange and can be considered anatomical dead space. These tubes are essential to bring air to the respiratory surface,..

Anatomical dead space Define Anatomical dead space at

Alveolar ventilation also increases with the increase in the vital volume due to exercise. This is because oxygen demand increases during exercise. Anatomical Dead Space: It refers to the air that is directed towards the alveoli but does not participate in the gaseous exchange It decreases during exercise due to increase in ventilation Anatomic, airway, or tracheal, dead space is the part of the tidal volume that does not participate. in gas exchange. Knowledge of the size of the dead space is important for proper mechanical. ventilation, especially if small tidal volumes are used The first 16 generations are termed the conducting zone, no bronchi in his region take part in gas exchange and this forms the anatomical dead space. In an average adult the volume of this space is about 150ml. From generation 17 onwards, small alveoli bud off the bronchi, these are where gas exchange takes place A review of literature shows that adult extrathoracic dead space volume (i.e., anatomic reservoir) is on average 0.8 ml/kg of body weight. In the neonatal / pediatric population, extrathoracic dead space volumes show a significant, inverse relationship with age Anatomic Dead Space: this is the volume of the air conducting pathways in which no gases are exchanged (approximately 150 mL in the average adult human being); this volume is optimized for the fastest delivery of air to the exchange zone with the least airflow resistance possible; when this volume gets messed up by something like an asthma.

Dead Space - Johns Hopkins Hospita

  1. The dead space/tidal volume ratio (V D/ V T) expresses the relationship between V D and total V T, or the portion of the V T that is wasted. V D has two components: anatomic dead space and alveolar dead space. Anatomic dead space is made up of the conducting airways and is normally about 1 ml/kg of ideal body weight
  2. Theratio ofphysiological deadspaceto tidal volumewas33 6±4-6%andwasunaltered byageorchangeinlungvolume. Theeffect ofairways obstruction on the dead space volumes was studied in 36 children with asthma and28 with cystic fibrosis. Physiological dead space increased with increasing airways obstruction. Anatomical deadspaceremainedconstant in.
  3. volume known as the anatomical dead space. This air is not available for gas mixing and exchange. It mixes with newly inhaled air and is recycled back to the alveoli. The relative size of the dead space as compared to functioning lung tissue impacts the efficiency of the respiratory system. Dead space is important in a variety.
  4. within the alveoli, or an increase in the dead space of the lungs (see Fig 11.6). Note that a particular lung pathology could be both obstructive and restrictive. For example, in emphysema (Fig 11.7), the alveolar walls break down. This decreases the elasticity of the lungs, increases the dead space, and decreases the vita
  6. albronchiole. Also know as the conducting part, its main function isto warm,.

Respiratory function - Dead space - Open Anesthesi

  1. ed by the contribution of the anatomical dead space, with a small addition from the alveolar dead space attributable to normal ventilation/perfusion heterogeneity
  2. Dead space ventilation (VD) includes (1) air that enters only conducting airways (referred to as anatomic dead space) and (2) air that reaches alveoli but does not exchange carbon dioxide or oxygen with the capillary blood. The combined volume of these two areas is often referred to as physiologic dead space. Based on these definitions, (Eqn 4.
  3. I understand that physiological dead space is more clinically useful, but I had a physiology lab today and one of the questions from the worksheet is, what is the physiological importance of anatomical dead space?" I don't understand how it is useful to the body if no gas exchange is occurring
  4. ation of alveolar ventilation. Defines physiologic and alveolar dead space and understands their deter
  5. Consequently, the dead space measured by Fowler's method is termed the Anatomic Dead Space. Bohr's method takes advantage of the observation that only the areas of lung that participate in gas exchange are the source of exhaled carbon dioxide whereas the dead space areas cannot possibly contribute to carbon dioxide exhalation
  6. •Anatomical dead space -Volume of conducting airways -Upper airways, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles -Does not include respiratory bronchioles and alveoli •Physiologic dead space (VDphys) -Total volume of the lungs that does not participate in gas exchange -Includes anatomic dead space plus a functional dead space in the.
  7. The total dead space (also known as physiological dead space) is the sum of the anatomical dead space plus the alveolar dead space. Anatomic dead space. Anatomical dead space is that portion of the airways (such as the mouth and trachea) which conducts gas to the alveoli. No gas exchange is possible in these spaces

Physiological dead space - ld99

  1. Definition of anatomical dead space in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is anatomical dead space? Meaning of anatomical dead space as a legal term. What does anatomical dead space mean in law
  2. But, since the volume of air in the dead space is an anatomical constant, the percentage of fresh air entering the alveoli is increased with increasing tidal volumes. For example, if the anatomical dead space is 150 ml and the tidal volume is 500 ml, the percentage of fresh air reaching the alveoli is 350/500 x 100% = 70%
  3. Dead space is one reason why taking deeper breaths leads to better ventilation (i.e. higher O2 perfusion of blood) than breathing faster. When you breathe shallow breaths, for example during hyperventilation, a large proportion of air remains as anatomical dead space in the lung

Alveolar ventilation and dead space A. Alveolar ventilation ( A) is defined as the volume of air entering and leaving the alveoli per minute. Air ventilating the anatomic dead space (VD) (Levitzky Fig 3-7), where no gas exchange occurs, is not included Anatomical dead space refers to the areas of the respiratory tract which do not participate in the exchange of gases. The amount of anatomical dead space is calculated in this way: Ideal Body Weight (kg) x 2ml This space is primarily from the oronasopharynx to the terminal and respiratory bronchioles

Dead space Flashcards Quizle

It is calculated by subtracting from the minute volume the air that does not reach the alveoli because of the anatomical dead space (the combined volume of the nonexchanging airways). During times of high oxygen demand it is more efficient to increase alveolar ventilation by increasing tidal volume than by increasing respiration rate Types of Dead Space. Dead space can be divided into: Apparatus dead space Dead space from equipment, such as tubes ventilator circuitry. Some apparatus dead space may actually reduce total dead space, as an ETT bypasses the majority of anatomical dead space of the patient (nasopharynx). Physiological dead space Dead space from the patient The remaining area below the horizontal red line represents wasted ventilation (physiological dead space). A vertical line is constructed through phase II so that the two areas p and q are equal. Area orange represents anatomical dead space and area brown represents alveolar dead space Alveolar Ventilation and Anatomic Dead Space What is meant by dead space? The lungs are linked to the atmosphere outside the body by a series of tubes: the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles The dead space also prevents infection and warms up incoming air. Due to the FRC and anatomical dead space being present, constant conditions are provided which allow our body to function optimally. Even though we know the importance of FRC and anatomical dead space, it is essential to measure them

Respiratory Dead Space - BSCC - LITFL • Life in the Fast

Anatomical dead space - volume of the conducting respiratory passages (150 ml) Alveolar dead space - alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction Total dead space - sum of alveolar and anatomical dead spaces The physiological dead space is defined as including anatomical dead space and alveolar dead space components. In normal subjects, the measurement is primarily determined by the contribution of th the anatomical dead space or Fowler dead space [6]. The Fowler dead space measurement is dependent on the subject size. An approximation suggested by Fowler based on measurements in 45 subjects was that anatomical dead space in cubic centimetres roughly equalled a subject's ideal body weight in pounds [5]. While that anatomical dead space is.

Anatomical dead space, ventilatory pattern, and exercise

  1. The anatomical dead space is the air in the nose, mouth, larynx, tracheas, bronchi and bronchioles. This air reaches the alveoli first upon inspiration. This air also has a higher concentration of CO 2 because of its prolonged exposure to the tissues
  2. You are transporting a patient with a long history of emphysema. The patient called 9-1-1 because his shortness of breath has worsened progressively over the past few days. He is on high-flow oxygen via nonrebreathing mask and has an IV of normal saline in place. The cardiac monitor shows sinus tachycardia and the pulse oximeter reads 89%
  3. 1 Gas exchange Airway flow CO2 O2 no gas exchange Anatomical dead space VD Anat = 1 ml/lb body wt. airway start insp end insp end exp room air No gas exchange (white) in anatomical dead space
  4. At peak exercise anatomical dead space ventilation was the same in both groups, but was lower expressed as a percentage of total VE in the control group (9.8 (3.3) v 13.5 (4.0); P < 0.001)
  5. Define anatomic dead space. anatomic dead space synonyms, anatomic dead space pronunciation, anatomic dead space translation, English dictionary definition of anatomic dead space. also an·a·tom·ic adj. 1. Concerned with anatomy. 2. Concerned with dissection. 3. Related to the structure of an organism. an′a·tom′i·cal·ly adv. Adj

Anatomical dead space - The Free Dictionar

  1. - the anatomical dead space - plus the alveolar dead space = completely non-perfused alveoli plus the aggregative effect of badly perfused alveoli, together s.c. functional dead space. However, the f.d.s. could be calculated from a relationship between the partial pressures of CO 2 in the expired gass and in the arterial bloo
  2. anatomic-dead-space definition: Noun (countable and uncountable, plural anatomic dead spaces) 1. (anatomy) That volume of conducting airways of the lung, as measured by a cast of the airways. 2. (physiology) That volume of inspired gas that does not mix with alve..
  3. If mechanical dead space volume equals or exceeds alveolar ventilation volume the patient will not be able to clear carbon dioxide at all. Anatomic dead space is comprised of the upper airway structures that do not participate in gas exchange. This includes the gases in the nasal passages, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and in the larger airways
  4. The lack of a simple, practical method for the calculation of dead space components simultaneously has hindered the clinical application of dead space measurement.8 The total respiratory dead space can be portioned into two parts: the anatomical dead space (airway, serial, or Fowler dead space, Vd anat), and alveolar or parallel dead space (Vd alv).9 Because alveolar dead space cannot be.

Anatomic dead space PFTBlo

Dead Space Ventilation Anatomical Dead Space. The conducting airways from the mouth and nose down to and including terminal bronchioles constitute anatomical dead space (V Danat). Ventilation of these airways is necessary to move gas to and from the alveoli, but no gas exchange occurs between blood and air across their walls Effect of respiratory rate on airway deadspace ventilation during exercise in cystic fibrosis of dead space volume in between anatomic dead space and body. Physiological dead space is the sum of normal anatomical dead space and alveolar dead space, and can be used to determine the rate of ventilation (gas exchange) in the lungs. When any type of dead space increases, the rate of ventilation in the lungs will decrease anatomic dead space (countable and uncountable, plural anatomic dead spaces) ( anatomy ) That volume of conducting airways of the lung, as measured by a cast of the airways. ( physiology ) That volume of inspired gas that does not mix with alveolar gas, as measured in vivo by gas dilution, by the method of Fowler Dead space in acute respiratory distress syndrome: more than a feeling! Nevertheless, a recent observational study in intensive care units in 50 countries found that prone positioning was used in only 16.3 % of patients with severe ARDS, whereas recruitment maneuvers were used in 32.7 % [ 1 ]

In adults, anatomic dead space is 2.2 ml/kg. Because of the relatively large head size of infants and children, we hypothesized that extrathoracic and, therefore, total dead space would be relatively larger in pediatric subjects Anatomic dead space information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues

Firstly it is important to understand what the anatomical dead space and FRC actually are. The anatomical dead space refers to the gas in the conducting areas of the respiratory system where air does not come into contact with alveoli. Examples of places in the respiratory system where anatomical dead space is present are the mouth and trachea If the tidal volume is 375 mL, and the anatomical dead space is increased to from 150 mL to 375 mL, how much fresh air enters the alveoli, i.e., what is the new alveolar ventilation? A) 0 mL Anatomical dead space refers to the air within the respiratory structures that never participates in gas exchange, because it does not reach functional alveoli. Respiratory rate is the number of breaths taken per minute, which may change during certain diseases or conditions

The Dead Space of the lungs refer to those areas of the lung which do not participate in gas exchange. Even lungs of healthy individuals display some dead space as this represents the volume of air that would fill the conducting airways with eac.. Keywords: Oxygen therapy, Physiological effects, Clinical trials, Anatomical dead space, PEEP effect Introduction The purpose of respiratory support is to maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation. In this, ensuring adequate alveolar ventilation is essential for expelling carbon dioxide produced in the human body Keywords. The dead-space is taken as the volume from the flow records represented by the distance from this perpendicular to the start of expiration. A typical tracing from the giraffe is shown in fig. 1, with comparable tracings from the red deer in fig. 2. Our results are summarized in table 1 alveolar dead space. The sum of the anatomical and alveolar dead space is known as the physiological dead space , ventilation of which is wasted in terms of gas exchange. In health, all alveoli take part in gas exchange, so physiologica l dead space eq uals anatomical dead space. ), is about 50 0 mL at rest Anatomic dead space can be measured accurately and simply by using a multiport valve to control a sequence of inspired and expired gas samples during any two breaths of a sequence. Alveolar gas concentration is tracked by a reference gas inspired prior to the two-breath sequence

Physiological Dead Space Medical Definition Merriam-Webster

Anatomical dead space is simply the amount of air in your system that is not actively participating in gas exchange (think mouth, throat, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, etc.) permalink embe So this assumes non dead space airways exchange CO2 such that the retained pressure of CO2 post-expiratory is (PaCO2-PeCO2), so that if we multiply the retained CO2 pressure by tidal volume (total volume inspired/expired, assuming no air trapping) it equals the pre-exchange CO2 pressure (PaCO2) multiplied by dead space volume (Vd) PHYSIOLOGICAL DEAD SPACE It is the combination of anatomical dead space an d alveolar dead space . where as alveolar dead space is the space occupied by gas which is transported to the alveoli.

The volume of the anatomic dead space correlated closely with height (Vd (ml) = 7.585 x Ht (cm) 2.363 x 10-4· ɣ = .917), but also with body weight, surface area, and functional residual capacity. When compared on the basis of any of these parameters there was no significant difference between the anatomic dead space values for males and females UCL (University College London) is London's leading multidisciplinary university, with 8,000 staff and 25,000 students

Chapter 22 - The Respiratory System Flashcards Quizle

Dead space is created when no ventilation and/or perfusion takes place. Anatomical dead space, or anatomical shunt, arises from an anatomical failure, while physiological dead space, or physiological shunt, arises from a functional impairment of the lung or arteries. An example of an anatomical shunt is the effect of gravity on the lungs DEAD SPACE-1 Dead space can be defined as a volume of gas which does not take part in gas exchange. Dead space can be classified into 3 types :- 1. Anatomical dead space This includes any breathing system or airway plus mouth, trachea and the airways up until the start of the respiratory zone. The typical volume in an adult is about 150mls Dead Space Gas exchange Dead Space Gas exchange Calculation of physiologic deadspace volume Assumption: all exhaled CO2 comes from the site of gas exchange Inhaled Tidal Volume Inhalation = O2 = CO2 Subscribe to view the full document The component of your tidal volume that is not involved in carbon dioxide/oxygen exchange is known as the dead space volume. In order to move more air into your lungs during exercise, you have two options: increase the rate at which you're breathing, or increase your tidal volume

physiologic dead space - Medical Dictionar

Lung Volumes, Capacities and Dead Space- Definitions and Normal values . Knowledge of these values are quite important to understand respiratory physiology, pathological basis of various respiratory illnesses and for anesthesia. Tidal Volume (TV)- Volume of gas inspired or expired in each breath during normal quiet respiration Physiologic dead space is the sum of the anatomic dead space and alveoli dead space. In other words, physiologic dead space, also called wasted ventilation connotes volume of gas inhaled but that fail to participate in gas exchange with blood flowing through the lungs

Nitrogen washout - Wikipedi

Anatomic dead space, which generally averages 150 mL, is formed by the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles. Physiological dead space consists of anatomical dead space plus the volume of any alveoli in which gas exchange is less than normal. The physiological dead space will decrease during exercis The anatomical dead space is decreased because the tracheotomy tube bypasses all upper airways. The end-tidal PCO2 is a reflection of what? Alveolar gas compositio Anatomic dead space (oropharynx, trachea, and airways) Alveolar dead space (ie, alveoli that are ventilated but not perfused) Physiologic dead space can also result from shunt or low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) if patients cannot increase their minute ventilation appropriately anatomical dead space n the dead space in that portion of the respiratory system which is external to the alveoli and includes the air-conveying ducts from the nostrils to the terminal bronchioles compar 54. Calculate the alveolar ventilation if the tidal volume is 500 ml., the respiratory rate is 12/minute, and the anatomical dead space is 100 ml. 55. If the total pressure of a mixture of gases was 760 mm Hg and its composition is 20% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, 75% nitrogen, and 5% water vapor, then the partial pressure of oxygen would be A) 740 mm Hg

Anatomical dead space Article about anatomical dead space

The total volume entering the alveolus per minute, known as alveolar ventilation, takes anatomical dead space into account. Notice that minute ventilation is closely analogous to cardiac output , where heart rate and stroke volume are substituted for respiratory rate and tidal volume, respectively A tracheostomy tube reduces the upper airway anatomical dead space by up to 150ml or 50% (Pritchard, 1994). Pulmonary resistance remains higher when breathing via a tracheostomy tube when compared to normal upper airway breathing. The amount of resistance is dependant on the size and type of the tracheostomy tube used

Physiology: Respiratory - University of Kansas Hospita

Impact on Dead Space Medical students and respiratory therapists are taught that anatomic dead space, contained in the upper airway and the intrathoracic conducting airways, is about 2 mL/ kg, or roughly 150 mL in an average-size adult.4 One study in cadavers determined the extrathoracic dead space 150 ml-the conducting airways (trachea, right and left mainstem bronchi, and lobar and segmental bronchi) do not contain alveoli and therefore do not take part in pulmonary gas exchange. these structures constitute the anatomic dead space. in the adult, the anatomic dead space is approximately 1 ml/lb or 2 ml/kg. the anatomic dead space increases during inspiration because of the traction. Best Answer: In physiology, dead space is air that is inhaled by the body in breathing, but does not partake in gas exchange. It includes mouth and trachea. In adults, it is usually in the range of 15 alveolar dead space n. The difference between physiological dead space and anatomical dead space, representing that part of the physiological dead space resulting from ventilation of relatively underperfused or nonperfused alveoli

Anatomic dead space is the portion of the airways that do not allow gas exchange because they do not contain alveoli and are conducting airways. The equation is 1ml/ lb of ideal body weight or roughly 2ml/kg. The physiologic dead space is made up of the anatomical dead space and the alveolar dead space Fricke K, Tatkov S, Domanski U, Franke KJ, Nilius G, Schneider H. Nasal high flow reduces hypercapnia by clearance of anatomical dead space in a COPD patient. Respiratory Medicine Case Reports . 2016;19:115-117 The inhaled air may reach only the anatomic dead space before it is promptly exhaled, resulting in decreased minute alveolar volume (VA) Q. The ___ are pyramid-like structures that form the posterior attachment of the vocal cords Best Answer: anatomical dead space is approximately 120ml for females and 150 ml for males. it can only acquired by performing a test called the fowler method OpenAnesthesia™ content is intended for educational purposes only and not intended as medical advice. Reuse of OpenAnesthesia™ content for commercial purposes of any kind is prohibited compare and contrast the anatomical and physiological dead spaces and describe how each might be measured: Anatomical dead space is the physical structures that are not involved in the gas exchange process. These include the nasopharynx, the larynx, the trachea, brochi, and bronchioles to the edge of the alveolus